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Senin, 23 September 2013

Sociolinguistic - Analysis about the Language Change of Indonesian Language and English

I. Background
1.      The Language Change of Indonesian Language
Indonesian Language has changed considerably, along with the times. Advances in information technology and socio-cultural help provide a big enough impact to change our language. Indonesian standard, in accordance with EYD has begun rarely used. Indonesian standard Language, more often we see only as a formal subject in schools, whereas in our daily life more comfortable using slang, casual language, and usually do not follow the rules of good grammar and correct.
2.      The Language Change of English
The three main periods are generally recognized in the history of English. Old English (Old English), known as the Anglo-Saxon form, from 449 M to 1100 M. Middle English (Middle English) 1066 to 1500 M. Modern English (Modern English) from around 1450 to 1500 M, which in each period, the English language has a few changes.
II. Objectives
The Objectives of this paper are:
a.       To know about the language change of Indonesian Language and English.
b.      To see the differences of the Language changes according to the phonological, morphological, syntactical, grammatical and semantic.

A.    Language Changes
In some ways, it is surprising that languages change. After all, they are passed down through the generations reliably enough for parents and children to communicate with each other.
In Old English, words tended to have inflectional endings that described their role in the sentence. For example, a noun would have a different ending if it was the subject or object of a sentence, if was possessive, etc. The word order in an Old English sentence wasn't as necessary to determine what the sentence meant as it is now.
In Middle English, many of these endings were lost, and the role a word played in the sentence was determined by word order, like it is today. The word order in Middle English is pretty similar in most cases to Modern English. (There are differences of course, but in general a Middle English sentence is like a Modern English sentence.)
Old English also had grammatical elements that Middle and Modern English lost, such as a dual person (now we only have singular and plural), strong/weak adjectives, and a difference between masculine and feminine (like French still has).
In all languages, the changes that will inevitably occur. No changes were derived from the internal language, such as phonetic changes, changes in grammatical particles, to change the grammar simplification. The most concrete example of these changes is the English language in 1000 years there were at least three times the changes are quite extreme (ie Early English, Middle English, and Modern English).
The second change was a push from the dominant language, which is considered higher status; these changes due to external factors, largely due to social factors, such as slang and colloquial, literary tradition and education are increasingly implicated (standardization of language makes spoken language is becoming increasingly write different kinds), as well as borrowing the concept of a foreign language, which resulted in the emergence of new lexicons. Sooner or later it will happen in Indonesian.
1)      Phonology
Nikolai Trubetzkoy in Grundzüge der Phonologie (1939) defines phonology as "the study of sound pertaining to the system of language", as opposed to phonetics, which is "the study of sound pertaining to the act of speech" (the distinction between language and speech being basically Saussure's distinction between langue and parole). More recently, Lass (1998) writes that phonology refers broadly to the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language, while in more narrow terms, "phonology proper is concerned with the function, behaviour and organization of sounds as linguistic items". According to Clark et al. (2007) it means the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use.

2)      Morphology
L. Bloomfield (1973) says: “ By the morphology of a language we mean the constructions in which bound forms appear among the constituents.”

3)      Syntactical
There are a number of theoretical approaches to the discipline of syntax. One school of thought, founded in the works of Derek Bickerton, sees syntax as a branch of biology, since it conceives of syntax as the study of linguistic knowledge as embodied in the human mind.

4)      Grammatical
Campbell, (1998:241) said that Language change from grammatical, is associated with changes in the language aspect of reducing semantic (semantic weakening, semantic fading). According to Heine and Kuteva, Language change in grammatically is the development of a form to a form of grammatical and lexical from grammatical forms to more grammatical forms again (2004:2).

5)      Semantic
Semantic is the study of meaning in language. According to Bloomfield (1933 in Leech, 1981:2), the study of meaning in linguistic must be excluded. However, any attempt to study language cannot escape from the study of meaning.


I. The Language Change of Indonesian Language

a)      Sounds (Phonological)
The changes phonological (sound) departed from spelling trip ever applicable in Indonesia. We must have been aware that the Indonesian spelling on everything from spelling Van Ophuysen the official spelling of the Malay language developed by Prof. Ch. A. Van Ophuysen with the help of some Malay teachers Nawawi titles like Sutan Makmur Engku and Sutan Muhammad Taib Ibrahim, published in 1901. Then Van Ophuysen spelling on March 19, 1947 by Mr simplified. Soewandy said this spelling of was later known as the Republic or spelling of spelling of Soewandy.
Subsequently, in 1956 appeared reform spelling of, spelling of Melindo appeared in 1959, and in 1966 there were spelling of LBK (Institute of Language and Literature), which then spelling of LBK experienced repairs and improvements called Enhanced Indonesian spelling of (EYD) on December 16 August 1972. With the change of spelling applicable trip in Indonesia, the impact on the existing spelling changes in Indonesian. There are many changes in Indonesian Language, such the examples below.
For example:
Sound Changes
Before EYD
On EYD nowadays
/j/      to      /y/
/oe/    to      /u/
/tj/      to     /c/
/’/       to     /k/
/2/      to      / /
/dj/     to     /j/
/ djalan/
/nj/     to     /ny/
/ njonja/
/ nyonya/
/sj/      to    /sy/
/ sjarat/
/ syarat/
/ch/     to    /kh/
/ tarich/
/ tarikh/
/ay/     to    /ai/
/ pantay/
/ pantai/
/aw/    to    /au/
/ kerbaw/
/ kerbau/
/oy/     to    /oi/
/ amboy/
/ amboi/
Besides the change due to the replacement / change the prevailing spelling, sound changes also occur as a result of the influence of language charges, such as the following.
-/dl / changed to / d /:
Hadlir > hadir
Fardlu > fardu
Ridla > rida
Ramadlan > ramadan

-/kwa /, / qua / changed to / kua /:
Aquarium/akwarium > akuarium
Qualitas/kwalitas > kualitas

- / x / changed to / ks / unless positioned in front.
Taxi > taksi
Extra > ekstra
Exekutif > ekskutif
Textile > tekstil
Unless / x / who plays in front of the word, / x / cannot be changed. For example, x-rays cannot be modified rays ks, xenon cannot be changed ksenon, xilofon irreversible ksilofon and so on.

b)     Words (Morphological)

dewa-dewi, putra-putri > pemuda-pemudi, siswa-siswi

hartawan, rupawan, bangsawan > negarawan, sosiawan, karyawan dan sebagainya

(Dilegalisirkan > diorganisirkan), (koordinir > koordinasi), (manipulir > manipulasi)

English (riset dari research), (pasien > patient)

Arabic (perdu > fardhu), (tepekur > tafakkur)

zaman dahulu kala > zaman dahulu or dahulu kala , Sejak dari > sejak, Naik ke atas > ke atas

In general, the form changes of words caused by the change of a few words in the original due to the growth of the language itself, or because of changes in the form of loan words. The form changes of words or sentences in a language commonly known symptoms, according Masnur Muslich (1990:104). Symptoms of languages according to Dr. JS Badudu in his book “Pelik Pelik Bahasa Indonesia” (1985:47) is "event-related formations word or phrase with all sorts’ formation process".
As for the kind and form of change / derivative words found in Indonesian described below.

There are more changes in terms of morphology, such as changes in Indonesian called hiperkorek, adisi, reduksi, kontraksi, metatesis, asimilasi, disimilasi, diftongisasi, monoftongisasi, anaptiksis, dan haplologi.

c)      Sentences (Syntactical)
The changes from grammatically, such as:
a)      active voice to passive voice
Active voice: Doni membeli buku
Passive voice: Buku telah dibeli oleh Doni
b)      Simple present tense to past tense
Saya belajar di rumah hari ini (present tense)
Saya tidak pergi ke sekolah kemarin (past tense)

d)     Grammatical (Grammatical)
The changes from grammatically, such as:
The changes of prefix “di-per”and the suffix "-kan" :
-          dipertinggikan (di+per+tinggi+kan) > ditinggikan(di+tinggi+kan)
-          Mengenyampingkan (menge+samping+kan) > dikesampingkan (di+ke+samping+kan)

e)      Meaning (Semantic)
In the growth of language, the meaning of a word can change. Here are the types of changes the meaning of the word.

The word "baju" was originally just meant "pakaian bagian atas dari pinggang ke bahu" but its meaning is becoming widespread as the word "baju seragam, baju dinas, baju olahraga, dan baju militer".

The word "sarjana", used to mean "orang pandai" or "cendekiawan", now simply means "orang yang lulus dari perguruan tinggi".

The meaning of words: "istri/nyonya" is considered higher value than the word "bini". The word "karyawan" is higher than "buruh".

The word "jamban" is higher than the "kakus/WC", as evidenced by the emergence of the term “jamban keluarga” = family toilet.

overall changes
The word "pena" was originally meaning "bulu", but now its meaning has changed completely since the word "pena" means writing instruments which use ink.

refinement (Eufemia)
The word “penjara” change the meaning to “lembaga kemasyarakatan”

coarsening (disfemia)
The meaning of word “Menggondol” usually use to a dog that brings bone, but now it can use to man who brings the trophy awards.

II. The Language Change of English

Modern English
Middle English English
Old English

a)      Sounds (Phonological)
Middle English
Modern English
ho us  > {hu: s}
house  > {haus}
Wif   >   {wi:f}
Wife   >   {waif}

b)      Words (Morphological)
Old English
Middle English
Modern English
hwȳ / hwon

c)      Sentences (Syntactical)
Middle English
Modern English
I’m going to sleep
I gonna sleep

d)     Grammatical (Grammatical)
Interrogative pronouns

Masculine/Feminine (Person)
hwone / hwæne
who / whom1
hwām / hwǣm

Neuter (Thing)
what / whom
hwām / hwǣm
hwȳ / hwon


1 - In some dialects who is used where Formal English only allows whom, though variation among dialects must be taken into account.
2 - Usually replaced by of what (post positioned).

e)      Meaning (Semantic)
Middle English
Modern English
I ran away
Did I run away? (not *Ran I away?)

Based on the analysis, we can conclude that all the results of the process of language development, either addition, subtraction, or replacement to any field in the language, including sound, form, and meaning can be characterized as a change of language.
The uniqueness characteristic of English was still there and leaving its tendency to grow and change. Despite warnings from those who defend the purity of the English language, new words are always created and modified in its use in expressing new concepts. English vocabulary also continuously enriched with absorption languages and particularly cross-fertilization of American English. Because of their use in terms of communications capabilities have infinite possibilities; English has become the international language of the world. Similarly, the change in the Indonesian language, from words, sentences, up to the change in the form of sense. Such changes cannot be stopped, because as the development of era, so the existence of slang that children use nowadays.



Wa Ode Indah Fitriyah

Teacher Training and Educational Faculty
Haluoleo University
K e n d a r i
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