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Senin, 23 September 2013

Observe about Language Acquisition of Children

Psycholinguistic Mid Assignment
by wd. Indah Fitriyah

Observe about Language Acquisition of Children
Language is a form of rule or system of symbols used to communicate by children and adapt to its environment. Language acquisition is acquiring language subconscious. Although how children learn to speak is not perfectly understood, most explanations involve both the observation that children copy what they hear and the inference that human beings have a natural aptitude for understanding grammar. Speech and language disorders are one of the causes of developmental disorders are most commonly found in children. Speech delay is a major complaint that is often feared and parents complained to the doctor.
In this paper, I examine a boy aged 4 years and have not been able to speak normally. His name is Kilan. He can understand what he sees or playing, but he can’t speak well. Then, what are the words that he could produce in speaking? What is the cause of delay in talking to this child?

As seen by SPO aspect, the words that he produced like:
As the rule
The child says
 b dan p

Bola = /bola/ . Pola = /pola/
Bola, pola : ola = /ola/

Beri,minum,dll. Ke,mem,an,me,dll

Ex: memasak, minum
Memasak, minum = atcak, inyum

Sangat  (can’t stay alone)

Sangat lama
Sangat lama = ngat ma

Ibu membawa kue dari pasar
Bu wa ue ai pat;ar

-          A phoneme is a basic unit of a language's phonology, which is combined with other phonemes to form meaningful units such as words or morphemes.
-          Morpheme the smallest semantic unit in a language.
-          Phrase is a collection of words that may have nouns or verbals, but it does not have a subject doing a verb.
-          Sentence is a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that bear minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it.
From above explanation, Kilan has a problem with communicate and tell something to others, even it just a word. So, what’s caused of delay in talking to this child? The cause of delay in speech is very broad and many. Functional speech delays are usually mild and only an immaturity of speech function in children at a certain age, especially after the age of 2 years will improve. However, if the speech delay is nonfunctional then the interference must be more aware because it is not something light, because of the receptive language disorder.
There are still many other causes of speech and language disorders, starting from the hearing, the successor impulses to the brain, brain, and muscle or organ sound makers. Then, speech disorders in children can also be caused by organic disorders that interfere with the body's multiple systems such as the brain, hearing and other motor function.
According to some research shows causes speech disorder is a disturbance of the dominant hemisphere. It usually refers to the left brain. Some children were also found irregularities right hemisphere, the corpus callosum and auditory trajectory interconnected. Another thing can also be caused from outside the body organs such as poor environmental gain sufficient stimulation or the use of two languages. If the cause by outside environment, delay usually not too dangerous..
So, there are three causes of delays in speaking most of them are mental retardation, hearing loss and delayed maturation. And the problem is what might happen to the child that I have observed.

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