Name: Wa Ode Indah Fitriyah Individual Assignment Of CCU
1. Searle & Ward (2004) said that the Culture shock refers to the number of claims adjustment experienced by individuals at the level of cognitive, behavioral, emotional, social, and physiological when they are placed in different cultures. It means that culture shock is the confusion of someone to a culture or behavior that he had never met before. For example, a person who go to abroad or to an area that he had never visited before, then he will be feel confused, and frustrated with the culture in that area, like how people eating, sitting or do they activity there. In fact, it will be difficult to adapting to the people who exist in that area.
2. Walter Lippman said that the stereotype is picture in our head or held perception attached to certain groups that ignore individual uniqueness. It means we judge a person or a person's culture is based on our own perceptions without seeing their true culture. Although, stereotype here, can be a positive or negative perception. For example, I am Indonesian and have a culture that does not do free sex. Then, when I go in a country or region that has a different culture, where, they used to do free sex. Without understanding their culture, I directly judge that they have a bad culture.
3. Myron Lustig and Jolene Koester said Intercultural competence describes communication between at least two people who are different in significant ways culturally. It means the ability to interact with people who have different cultural backgrounds, in the field of social or economic. For example, a company leader who has a lot of employees with different cultural backgrounds, then he must have extensive knowledge about other cultures, so that he can interact better with his employees. Another example is a worker who works abroad, where he must be able to interact with the culture where he worked.
4. Ethnocentrism by William G. Sumner, upon observing the tendency for people to differentiate between the in-group and others. He defined it as "the technical name for the view of things in which one's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." He further characterized it as often leading to pride, vanity, beliefs of one's own group's superiority, and contempt of outsiders. It means that we judge or make a distinction between a person's culture based on someone ethnic with ethnic ourselves, whether it is from the way they speak, dress, and others. For example, one of the tribes in Papua, the way they dress to wear clothing that is still not the standard, they just wear underwear. Then I compared it with my tribe who had been taking standardized costume.
5. (Anderson, 1999), says that non-verbal communication is considered as more honest, and contains a message that is done without words. This means that non-verbal communication we communicate without words to others, such as using gestures, body language, facial expressions and eye contact, use of objects such as clothes, haircuts, and so forth. Examples of non-verbal communication in Indonesia, especially in my culture is spit, spit considered acts brash and disrespectful. But the Masai people in Africa think the act is a sign of gratitude or love sign on someone.
6. Allport, (in Zanden, 1984), that prejudice is an attitude of hating other groups without any objective reason to hate the groups. This means that we make a negative prejudice against a person or group of people before we know the truth. For example, one of tribes inJava is eating locusts. Then, because we do not like the locust, did not even eat it, then we assume they are a strange people.
7. DeddyMulyana said that verbal communication is all kinds of symbols that use one or more words. This means that we communicate using words either oral or written. For example, a broadcast news reporter or a journalist who was writing a story.